Interactive Web Biographies of Some Famous Communitarians
(listed in chronological order from the 18th century to the present day)

N.B. -- This document is highly selective. Its main objective is to discover how certain community leaders in the United States have interacted and influenced each other over the years. It is a work in progress. Some of these biographies are very incomplete, and many are not yet edited to the same standard. Your comments, corrections, additions, or additional links would be very much appreciated. Please e-mail them to Thank you.

Part I (Summary List)

1757-1847 - Rapp, George - Religious leader
1763-1840 - Maclure, William - Scientist
1771-1858 - Owen, Robert - Reformer
1795-1852 - Wright, Frances (Fanny) - Feminist
1798-1874 - Warren, Josiah - Anarchist

1839-1897 - George, Henry - Economist
1842-1921 - Kropotkin, Peter Alekseevich - Anarchist
1850-1898 - Bellamy, Edward - Novelist
1850-1933 - Labadie, Joseph A. (Jo) - Anarchist
1860-1935 - Addams, Jane - Humanitarian
1861-1916 - Price, William Lightfoot (Will) - Architect
1867-1959 - Wright, Frank Lloyd - Architect
1876-1933 - Hodgkin, Henry Theodore - Medical missionary
1878-1965 - Morgan, Arthur Ernest - Engineer & educator
1882-1945 - Roosevelt, Franklin Delano - President
1883-1935 - Arnold, Eberhard - Religious leader.
1883-1983 - Nearing, Scott - Economist
1884-1962 - Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor - Humanitarian
1884-1965 - Pickett, Clarence Evan - Humanitarian
1888-1977 - Borsodi, Ralph - Decentralist
1888-1969 - Rice, John Andrew - Educator
1891-1979 - Tugwell, Rexford Guy - Economist & statesman
1898-1971 - Rodale, Jerome Irving - Organic farmer
1898-1975 - Labadie, Laurance (Larry) - Anarchist

1900-1986 - Loomis, Mildred Jansen - Decentralist
c1900-1985 - Bergstrom, Georgia Snyder - Teacher
1905-1990 - Horton, Myles - Educator
1908-2000 - Dockhorn, Marian Siddall - Civil rights leader
1908-1984 - Bishop, Robert Forsythe (Bob) - Architect
1911-1977 - Schumacher, E. F. (Fritz) - Economist
1912-1969 - Jordan, Clarence Leonard - Integrationist
1913-1984 - Templin, Ralph T. - Missionary
c1915-1982 - Arnold, J. Heinrich (Heini) - Bruderhof leader
1916-1997 - Milgram, Morris - Integrationist

19??-Alive - Keene, Paul - Organic farmer
1915-Alive - Dellinger, David - Pacifist
c1915-Alive - Andersen, Alfred F. - Philosopher & communitarian
1916-Alive - Ewbank, John Robert - Decentralist & patent attorney
19??-Alive - Lefevre, Grace Trimmer - Nutritionist
1918-Alive - Swann, Robert (Bob) - Land & currency reformer
19??-Alive? - Wiser, Art - Christian communitarian
1921-Alive - Leasure, Melvin Norris (Mel) - Communitarian & teacher
19??-Alive - Iaacov, Oved - Professor
19??-Alive - Pitzer, Donald E. - Professor
1930-Alive - Lynd, Staughton - Communitarian & labor lawyer
1931-Alive - Kincade, Kathleen (Kat) - Communitarian & author
1935-Alive - Gaskin, Stephen F. - Hippy
1937-Alive - Sale, Kirkpatrick - Environmentalist & decentralist
1944-Alive - Miller, Timothy (Tim) - Professor of religion
1948-Alive - Betterton, Charles - Communitarian & manager
19??-Alive - Schaub, Laird - Communitarian & consensus trainer
19??-Alive - Christenberry, Dan - Communitarian & insurance agent
c1960-Alive - Butcher, A. Allen - Communities scholar
c1965-Alive - Greenberg, Daniel (Dan) - Educator
19??-Alive - Gering, Ralf - Communities scholar


Part II (Detailed Biographies)

George Rapp (1757-1847)
Born in Iptingen, Wurttemberg, Germany in 1757. Pietist religious leader. Emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1803-1904 and founded a communistically organized colony in Beaver County, north of Pittsburgh, with a group of over 1700 followers. The Rappites shared their economic wealth equally. They believed the Second Coming of Christ was imminent and soon the Millenial Kingdom would be set up on earth, and Father Rapp believed that his Society would prepare true believers for this event. People were attracted to Rapp both because of his charismatic leadership but also because of his common sense. His son Frederick was also an able businessman, administrator, and organizer like his father. In 1814 the community to crossed the western frontier and set up a new headquarters, called Harmony, on the Wabash River in Indiana. In 1824-1825, the group moved back to Pennsylvania, and sold their 30,000 acre community, buildings and all, to Robert Owen, who agreed to pay $150,000. The Harmonists had found the Wabash Valley unhealthy and surrounded by unpleasant neighbors. The new Pennsylvania site, called Economy, just 15 miles from their original location near Pittsburgh, proved well-suited for manufacturing and business. Economy thrived and attracted many well-known international visitors, as well as many west-bound settlers, despite a split in the society in 1833 and Frederick's death in 1834. Father Rapp died in 1847. An able group of administrators and trustees continued to guide the society’ s affairs, and the Harmonists continued their way of life until 1905.

William Maclure (1763-1840)
"Father of American geology" (according to the University of Southern Indiana)
Geologist and educational reformer. Born to wealth in Ayr, Scotland, in 1763. Moved to the US in 1778. Before 1800, he owned businesses in the US, traveled extensively in Europe, and joined the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. In 1803 Maclure served in Paris on a US Commission representing citizens with losses resulting from the French Revolution. In Switzerland in 1805, he visited the educational leader Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, and in 1806 he contracted the Pestalozzian educator Joseph Neef. Having conducted geological studies in France and Spain, Maclure began intensive studies in the United States in 1808. In 1812, while in France, Maclure became a member of the newly founded Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP). In 1815, Maclure contracted Charles-Alexandre Lesueur, artist and natural scientist, and the two traveled extensively together, arriving in Philadelphia in 1816. Joined by Thomas Say and Gerhard Troost, the four made a geological trip in eastern states in 1817. That same year, Maclure became president of the ANSP, a post he held for the next 22 years. The next few years, Maclure traveled and resided in France, Italy, Paris, Switzerland, and Spain. In 1824, he visited Robert Owen's cotton mill at New Lanark, Scotland. In July, 1825, he arrived in Philadelphia with Madame Fretageot's nephews. The following November, he met Robert Owen in Philadelphia and decided to join Owen's venture to Harmonie, recently purchased by Owen from Harmonist leader George Rapp and renamed New Harmony. In January 1826, the keelboat Philanthropist (afterwards known as "The Boatload of Knowledge") journeyed down the Ohio River to Mount Vernon, Indiana. From there the well established scientists and educators made their way to New Harmony. Among them were Lesueur, Say, Maclure, and Pestalozzian educators Marie Duclos Fretageot and William S. Phiquepal d'Arusmont. Soon to join them in New Harmony were Neef and Troost. (The journey and settling are described by Donald E. Pitzer in "William Maclure's Boatload of Knowledge: Science and Education into the Midwest," Indiana Magazine of History 94 (1998) 110-135. The monumental work on William Maclure and New Harmony is edited by Josephine Mirabella Elliott" "Partnership for Posterity: The Correspondence of William Maclure and Marie Duclos Fretageot, 1820-1833," Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, 1994.) After 1826, Maclure spent most of his time in Mexico. However, he continued financial support through Madame Fratageot's management in New Harmony, enabling the scientific work of Thomas Say and Charles-Alexandre Lesueur and later, David Dale Owen (1807-1860) and other geologists. Maclure founded the Workingmen's Institute in New Harmony in 1838. Much has been written about the coming together of Maclure and Owen, as well as their separation of ways. According to W. H. G. Armytage's "William Maclure, 1763-1840: A British Interpretation," (Indiana Magazine of History 47 (1951) 1-20), "Owen was anxious to inaugurate his new moral world as far away from the corrosions of the old one as possible; Maclure wished to try the Pestalozzian methods of instruction on human beings who had known no other. It was but natural that they should get together, especially as Maclure's considerable wealth enabled him to play the part of joint patron. The agreement was that each should provide the sum of one hundred fifty thousand dollars: an agreement which was to be the ostensible cause of their parting."

Robert Owen (1771-1858)
"A village boy who grew to hobnob with royalty, A shop assistant who became a factory manager, A Welshman who achieved fame in Scotland, An employeer who cared about workers' welfare, An educator with little education, A rich man who fought for the poor, A capitalist who became a socialist, A socialist before Marx, whose ideas have outlasted communism, An individualist who inspired the Co-operative movement" (quoting the Robert Owen Memorial Museum)
Reformer and philanthropist. Atheist. Born in Newtown, Powys, Wales, in 1771. Joined a brother in London, and was apprenticed to a clothier in Stamford, Lincolnshire. The three-year plan included board and lodging, with no pay the first year, 8 pounds the second and 10 pounds the third. "These terms," Owen wrote, "I accepted ... I from that period, ten years of age, maintained myself without ever applying to my parents for any additional aid." Owen moved upward, becoming, at age 20, the manager of one of the most modern cotton mills in Manchester. In 1796, he served on the Manchester Board of Health, an experience which no doubt put Owen in touch with widespread wretchedness and helped shape his ideas for social reform. In 1799, representing the Chorlton Twist Company, Owen purchased the cotton mills at New Lanark from David Dale, and then became, on the first day of 1800, the manager of the largest cotton factory in Scotland. (The name Dale has been associated with the Owen family ever since Robert Owen married David Dale's daughter, Anne Caroline Dale, on September 30, 1799. They named their children Robert Dale, William, Ann, Jane Dale, David Dale, Richard, and Mary; subsequent generations of Owens have kept the name to the present day.) Carolyn Dale Owen was devoutly Calvinistic, and the children were instructed accordingly. When Owen's eldest son was eleven years old, he tried to convert his father. Of the 2,000 people in New Lanark, 500 were children for whom there was no room in overcrowded poorhouses and charities in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Many of these children worked in the mills and had been well provided for by David Dale, who, in 1796, had written to the Manchester Board of Health that of the 500 children, eighty could read, twenty-four well enough that no further instruction in reading was needed. Owen extended Dale's precedent and in 1816 opened at New Lanark the first infant school in Great Britain. Owen also improved the housing at New Lanark, encouraged the people in personal order, cleanliness, and thrift, and opened a store with fair prices and limited sales of alcoholic beverages. His successes stood out among many failures elsewhere in Britain and Europe under the dark shadows of the industrial revolution, unemployment, crime, and poverty. Based largely on his successes at New Lanark, Owen emerged as a leader of social reform. One of Robert Owen's mottos, which appeared in the masthead of New Moral World, was that "The character of a man is formed for him, not by him." Character-formation was a principal objective of Owenite education, legislation, "rational religion," and the building of communitarian villages such as New Harmony. On January 3, 1825, Owen purchased the town of Harmonie, Indiana, from religious leader George Rapp. Rapp and his followers returned to Pennsylvania, and Owen's utopian society got off to a big start. Between 800 and 900 people arrived during the spring of 1825, and in a newly established newspaper, the name Harmonie was replaced by New Harmony. However, the experiment was not at all harmonious. Within two years, Owen had returned to England, where his reform movement continued to gain momentum, peaking in about 1839. Back in New Harmony, Owen's influence continued through five of his children who lived there and through William Maclure, who attracted scientists and educators to the little town. Owen died in 1858 at age 87.
Three museums are devoted to Owen's life and work: The
Robert Owen Memorial Museum, Newtown, Powys, Wales, the
New Lanark World Heritage Village (including the "New Millenium Experience"), New Lanark Mills, Lanarkshire, Scotland, and
Historic New Harmony, New Harmony, Indiana, USA.
Also see the New Lanark Conservation Trust, New Lanark Mills, Lanarkshire, Scotland, and the Robert Owen Foundation, Langbank, Renfrewshire, Scotland.
(A well-known biography is Frank Podmore's "Robert Owen, a Biography," v. 1 and 2, London, 1906. An excellent eleven-page account of Robert Owen's life and work was written by Joyce M. Bellamy and John Saville in the Dictionary of Labour Biography, vol. 6, Macmillan, London, 1982. For an account of New Harmony in the context of the Owenite movement and Owenite principles, see Donald E. Pitzer's "The New Moral World of Robert Owen and New Harmony," in America's Communal Utopias, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London, 1997.) Died in 1858. Buried at St. Mary's Church, Newtown, Powys, Wales. Owen wrote:
1816 - "A New View of Society"
1821 - "Report to the County of Lanark"
1844 - "The Book of the New Moral World"
1857 - "The Life of Robert Owen" (autobiography)

Frances (Fanny) Wright (1795-1852)
Feminist and writer. Secularist. First American woman to personally speak out against slavery in public. Born in Dundee, Scotland. Fanny was two and her sister Camilla was also quite young when both parents died, and the sisters inherited a fortune. In his diary, William Owen (1802-1842) portrays the days leading up to Robert Owen's purchase of Harmonie and his first impression of Fanny Wright and her sister. The entry for March 19, 1825 states "In the evening the Misses Wright, who were on their way to New Orleans, to meet the Marquis De LaFayette, arrived. They brought us news of my Father's proceedings in Washington. Miss Wright is a very learned and a fine woman, and though her manners are free and unusual in a female, yet they are pleasing and graceful and she improves upon acquaintance." That same year, Wright purchased 640 acres near Memphis, Tennessee, naming the tract Nashoba. She purchased slaves and freed them to settle in the experimental colony at Nashoba. By 1828, the experiments at both Nashoba and New Harmony had failed. Robert Owen had returned to England, but his eldest son Robert Dale Owen (1801-1877) had stayed, and Wright joined him and assisted as editor of The New Harmony Gazette. The following year, she and Owen moved to New York City and emerged as leaders of the free-thought movement through their newspaper The Free Enquirer. Among Wright's themes were the liberalizing of divorce laws, birth control, free state-run secular education, the political organization of laborers, equal rights for women, and objectionable ecclesiastical influences in politics. In Paris, on July 22, 1831, Fanny Wright married William S. Phiquepal d'Arusmont, one of the Pestalozzian teachers who sailed on Maclure's "Boatload of Knowledge" in 1826 and whom she had met in New Harmony. The d'Arusmonts lived in Paris until 1835, when they moved to Cincinnati, Ohio. They divorced in 1852, two years before she died and was buried in Cincinnati. Eptaph is "I HAVE WEDDED THE CAUSE OF HUMAN IMPROVEMENT, STAKED ON IT MY FORTUNE, MY REPUTATION AND MY LIFE." See Wright web site. (The definitive biography is by Celia Morris: "Fanny Wright: Rebel in America," University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1992, first published by Harvard University Press, 1984.) Wright wrote:
1818 - "Altorf" (a play about Swiss independence produced in New York City),
1821 - "Views of Society and Manners in America" (widely acclaimed),
1822 - "A Few Days in Athens" (a novelistic sketch of a disciple of Epicurus), and
1825 - "A Plan for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in the United States Without Danger of Loss to the Citizens of the South," and
1828 - "Explanatory Notes Respecting the Nature and Objects of the Institution of Nashoba and of the Principles upon which it is Founded"

Josiah Warren (1798-1874)
"The first American anarchist" (according to biographer William Bailie)
Anarchist, reformer, inventor, musician, and writer. Born in Boston in 1798. He and his brother George joined the Old Boston Brigade Band while very young. Settled in Cincinnati in 1821 and followed the profession of music for some time. Invented a lamp for burning lard, and the invention developed into a large lamp manufactory located in Cincinnati, where the lamp business was carried on for years. Sold the lamp factory and moved to Robert Owen's Community at New Harmony, Indiana, but soon saw that common ownership of property. So left New Harmony for Cincinnati, and followed again the musical profession, at the same time musing over the problem of "true civilization" and "labor for labor" doctrine. Learned to make type-mould in order to publish a newspaper The Peaceful Revolutionist. Became a "reformer" of the labor question and a student of the problem of "Peaceful Revolution." Moved to Trenton, Ohio, with the idea of starting a community to be run on the "Labor for Labor" system but found Trenton too remote, so in 1838 moved back to New Harmony and applied himself to simplifying the art of printing. Built the World's first continuous sheet press in Cincinnati, striking off from forty to sixty copies per minute. Tried to ship the press to Evansville, Indiana, on New Year's Eve 1840, but the boat got icebound several miles from Madison, Indiana, and Warren sleighed and walked to New Harmony, and the press was finally placed in Evansville. Started started a "time store" in the building next to the Workingmen's Institute to implement the "labor for labor" idea. Then devoted himself to a new method of stereotyping, spent time and money, and his work was the first of the kind which developed into the present system of electrotyping. Went to Boston in 1850 and interested himself in developing a printing process by which the type plate was on a cylinder. John Stuart Mill called Josiah Warren "a remarkable American" and in his own autobiography adopted Warren's phrase "Sovereignty of the Individual." It is interesting that the words "individual sovereignty" stand in sharp contrast to Robert Owen's utopian principles for communitarian living. Perhaps the months Warren spent as a part of the Owen experiment sharpened his notion of individual sovereignty. (The standard biography is William Bailie's "Josiah Warren: The First American Anarchist," Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, 1906. Also see Frederick D. Buchstein's "Josiah Warren: The Peaceful Revolutionist," Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 32, 1974, pages 61-71. ) Founded several equity stores based on the idea of exchanging goods for an equivalent amount of labor and the principle that cost should be the limit of price. Founded three communities, including Utopia (1847-1875?) on the Ohio River with former members of New Harmony and Modern Times (1851-1864) on Long Island in Brentwood, New York, with Stephen Pearl Andrews. Died in Boston in 1874. Warren wrote:
18?? - "Manifesto"
18?? - "True Civilization and Equitable Commerce"

Henry George (1839-1897):
"Capitalism's last gasp" (according to Karl Marx)
"Third most famous man in the US -- after Thomas Edison and Mark Twain" (according to his granddaughter, choreographer Agnes George de Mille)
Economist and politician. Born in 1839 in Philadelphia. Printer and journalist in San Francisco, c1860-1880. Writer and lecturer in New York City, 1880-1897. Advocated "land value taxation" -- a single tax on land only. Ran for mayor of New York City in 1886 and 1897. Died in 1897 during the electoral campaign at age 58. Buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York, after a funeral attended by thousands. Epitaph is "THE TRUTH THAT I HAVE TRIED TO MAKE CLEAR WILL NOT FIND EASY ACCEPTANCE. IF THAT COULD BE, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN ACCEPTED LONG AGO. IF THAT COULD BE, IT WOULD NEVER HAVE BEEN OBSCURED. BUT IT WILL FIND FRIENDS - THOSE WHO WILL TOIL FOR IT, SUFFER FOR IT, IF NEED BE, DIE FOR IT. THIS IS THE POWER OF TRUTH." Papers at New York Public Library. Georgists founded at least four communities based on single tax Principles: Arden and Gilpin's Point in Delaware, Free Acres in New Jersey, and Fairhope in Alabama. George wrote:
1871 - "Our land and land policy" and
1879 - "Progress and Poverty: An Inquiry into the Cause of Industrial Depressions and of the Increase of Want with Increase of Wealth...the Remedy."
See Robert Schalkenbach Foundation (RSF), New York, NY, Henry George Institute, New York, NY, and Henry George School of Social Science, New York, NY, and other "Georgist" sites.

Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin (1842-1921)
Anarchist, geographer, and revolutionary. Born in Moscow, Russia. According to the Enclyclopedia Brittanica, Kropotkin "argued that, despite the Darwinist concept of survival of the fittest, cooperation rather than conflict is the chief factor in the evolution of the species...envisioned a society in which men would do both manual and mental work, both in industry and in agriculture...Members of each cooperative society would work from their 20's to their 40's...sufficing for a comfortable life, and the division of labor would yield to a variety of pleasant jobs, resulting in the sort of integrated, organic existance that had prevailed in the medieval city." Moved to Chicago in 1899 and lived for a while at Jane Addam's Hull House. The manual in current use at the Arden communities in Delaware quotes Kropotkin's views on superiority of cooperation over conflict. Kropotkin wrote:
1887 - "In Russian and French Prisons,"
1892 - "Conquest of Bread,"
1893 - "Advice to Those About to Emigrate"
1895 - "Regarding the Proposed Communist Settlement"
1899 - "Memoirs of a Revolutionist,"
1901 - "Fields, Factories and Workshops,
1901 - "Communism and Anarchy"
1902 - "Mutual Aid" (available from CSI),
1909 - "The Great French Revolution,"
1910 - Article on "Anarchism" in the Enclyclopedia Brittanica,
1922 - "Ethics, Origin and Development (posthumous)," and many other books

Edward Bellamy (1850-1898)
Novelist and reformer. Born in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. Wrote Looking Backward 2000-1887, the first and most popular utopian novel. Published in 1887 at the time of the Haymarket riot (Chicago, 1886), the Homestead strike (Pittsburgh, 1892), and the Pullman strike (Chicago, 1894), Looking Backward describes an ideal society free of labor strife at the end of the 20th century.  According to Biographer Robert L. Shurter, Looking Backward deserves to rank along with Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ramona as one of the most timely books ever to appear in America... For every reader of Henry George's Progress and Poverty [published in 1879]...there [were] thousands of readers of Looking Backward." Bellamy's book inspired the creation of "Nationalist Clubs" and several Socialist communities, including Equality Colony in Bow, Skagit County, Washington  (1896-c1915). In 1944 -- 46 years after Bellamy's death -- Arthur Ernest Morgan wrote a biography entitled simply Edward Bellamy. Also see "A Traveller from Altruria" by William Dean Howells (1894), "The Story of Utopias" by Lewis Mumford (1922), "Edward Bellamy Speaks Again!" by R. Lester McBride (1937), and "Utopias on Puget Sound, 1885-1915" by Charles Pierce LeWarne (1975). Bellamy wrote:
1887 - "Looking Backward 2000-1887,"
1889 - "How I Came to Write 'Looking Backward'" (in The Nationalist, May),
1894 - "How I Wrote 'Looking Backward'" (in The Ladies' Home Journal, April),
1897 - "Equality."

Joseph A. (Jo) Labadie (1850-1933)
"All-American anarchist" (according to his granddaughter and biographer Carlotta R. Anderson)
Anarchist, printer, labor leader, and poet. Agnostic. Born in Paw Paw, Michigan, in 1850. Affiliated with Socialist Labor party, Knights of Labor (KOL), Greenback party, Michigan Federation of Labor, etc. Edited the Detroit Socialist, Advance and Labor Leaf, and other papers. Converted to anarchism by Benjamin R. Tucker. Collected anarchist literature -- including a manuscript about Josiah Warren -- now The Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Father of anarchist Laurance (Larry) Labadie (1898-1975). See the Labadie Website maintained by Carlotta R. Anderson, her new biography, and a book review by Andrew H. Lee. Labadie died in Detroit in 1933. Labadie wrote:
1910 - "Doggerel for the Under Dog"
1910 - "The Red Flag and Other Verses"
1922 - "Songs of the Spoiled"

Jane Addams (1860-1935)
Humanitarian. Quaker. Born in Cedarville, Illinois, in 1860. Visited Toynbee Hall, a pioneer university settlement house in London, in 1888. Moved to a poor part of Chicao and, at age 29 with Ellen Starr, founded Hull House there in 1889 to "aid in the solution of social problems engendered by the modern conditions of life in a great city" and to help her neighbors "build responsible self-sufficient lives for themselves and their families." Hull House became the most famous settlement house in America. It attracted visits by educators, researchers and journalists from coast to coast and spauned similar settlement houses in New York, Philadelphia, and other cities. Addams campaigned for social and labor reforms, was an early leader of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), helped found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) in 1920, and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. She lived at Hull House from 1889 until her death in 1935 at age 75. Buried in Cedarville, Illinois. Addams wrote
1910 - "Twenty Years at Hull House,"
and ten other books.

William Lightfoot (Will) Price (1861-1916)
Architect. Born in 1861. Quaker. Apprenticed in Philadelphia under Frank Furness (1839-1912) -- same as Louis Sullivan, an early employer of Frank Lloyd Wright. Designed major structures in Philadelphia, Atlantic City, Chicago, Miami, and elsewhere. Became disillusioned with industrial society. Bought land in 1897 with sculptor Frank Stephens and supporters of Henry George to create Arden, an Arts and Crafts and Georgist "single tax" community not far from Philadelphia but just inside Deleware. (Upton Sinclair lived in Arden when he wrote "The Jungle" in 1906, as did Scott Nearing before he was fired by the University of Pennsylvania in 1915. Also Ella Reeve (Mother) Bloor, founder of the Communist Party of the USA.) Price created a second Arts and Crafts community in 1901 only eight miles from Arden in Rose Valley, Pennsylvania, where he lived until his premature death at the height of his career. See William L. Price: Arts and Crafts to Modern Design by George E. Thomas (2000). Also see "Arden: A Record of Village Life on Communal Land" (1999) and "Art, Craft, and the Utopian Ideal: Arden, Delaware, 1900-1935" (2000), both by Arden archivist Mark Taylor. Died in 1916 at age 55. Papers at University of Pennsylvania.

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Architect. Born in 1867 in Richland Center, Wisconsin. Unitarian. Started working on "urban decentralization" in 1930. Founded Taliesin Fellowship (1932) and Taliesin West (1938). (Taliesin students included Robert Forsythe Bishop and Paul Beidler, both of whom later became members and architects of Bryn Gweled Homesteads in Southampton, Pennsylvania.) Communities designed by Wright include Broadacre City (concept plan, 1933), Suntop Homes (Ardmore, Pennsylvania, 1939), Usonian Homes (Pleasantville, New York, 1940), Cooperative Homesteads (Madison Heights, Michigan, 1942), and Parkwyn Village (Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1947). (Robert Swann worked for Wright at Parkwyn Village and later help build Concord Park near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, etc.) Wright died in 1959 at age 92 and is buried in Unity Chapel, Spring Green, Wisconsin. See "Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Houses: The Case for Organic Architecture" by John Sergeant, 1975. Wright wrote about community in:
1935 - "Broadacre City: A New Community Plan,"
1945 - "When Democracy Builds,"
1954 - "The Natural House,"
1958 - "The Living City," and other books.

Henry Theodore Hodgkin (1876-1933)
Born in England in 1876. Quaker. Resident medical officer of Midmay Mission Hospital in London as of 1903. Founded the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR) in 1914 in UK and in 1915 in US. (Early FOR leaders included Jane Addams and Scott Nearing.) A medical missionary in China for 20 years, Hodgkin was chosen in July 1928 to help organize and serve as the first director of Pendle Hill, the new Quaker "center for study and contemplation" in Wallingford, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia and three Quaker universities (Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore) -- and just over one mile from Rose Valley. He helped name Pendle Hill for the "mountain of vision" in Lancashire, England, from which Quaker founder George Fox received enlightenment in 1652. His son John Pease Hodgkin (d.1990) was a charter member in 1940 of Bryn Gweled Homesteads in Southampton, Pennsylvania, and in fact, coined the name "Bryn Gweled" (Welsh for "hill of vision") in imitation of Pendle Hill. Both Pendle Hill and Bryn Gweled Homesteads were members of the Fellowship of Intentional Communities (FIC) at or very soon after its creation in 1948. Hodgkin's health failed, his directorship was curtailed, and he died in 1932. His successor at Pendle Hill, Howard H. Brinton, visited the Amana colonies in Iowa and a Hutterite community in South Dakota in 1940 and published How to Produce Cooperation, a study of American Utopias, in 1950. Pendle Hill held an Intercommunity Exchange Conference in 1952 attended by the Bruderhof Communities and the Group Farming Research Institute, among others. See "Henry T. Hodgkin: A Memoir" by H. G. Wood (1937), "Henry Hodgkin" by John Ormerod Greenwood (1980), "Pendle Hill: A Quaker Experiment in Education and Community" by Eleanore Price Mather (1980), and "Living Grace-Fully: A Reflection on Spirit-Led Community as Practiced at Pendle Hill" by current director Dan Seeger (1999?). Henry Hodgkin wrote:
19?? - "George Fox" (a biography)

Eberhard Arnold (1883-1935)
"A modern-day Saint Francis" (according to the Eberhard Arnold website)
Anabaptist religious leader. Born in Königsberg, Germany. General Secretary of the Student Christian Movement in Germany. With his wife Emily founded The Society of Brothers (TSOB) or Bruderhof Communities in 1920 as an idealistic commune of Christian students on a rented farm in Sannerz. Had more than 40 members by 1926. Visited Hutterite communities in the United States in 1930 and received ordination as a Hutterite minister. See biography. Arnold died in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1935 at age 52 after surgery on his leg. Bruderhof were expelled from Nazi Germany in 1937. See entry for his son J. Heinrich (Heini) Arnold.

Arthur Ernest Morgan (1878-1965)
"FDR's Utopian" (according to biographer Roy Talbert, Jr.)
"Apostle of Community" (according to his son Ernest Morgan)
Engineer and educator. Born in 1878 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Unitarian then Quaker. Built a series of dams to protect Dayton, Ohio, 1913-1915. President of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1920-1936. Chairman and Chief Engineer of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 1933-1938. Founded Celo Community, Burnsville, North Carolina, in 1935 (with Clarence Pickett) and Community Service, Inc. (CSI), Yellow Springs, Ohio, in 1940. Met with conscientious objectors during World War II (and persuaded some to move to Celo). Presided at CSI's Small Communities Conference which coined the phrase "intentional community" and led to the creation of the Fellowship of Intentional Communities (FIC) in 1948. Hosted Ralph Borsodi for a seminar at Antioch in December 1949. See "Arthur E. Morgan and Community Service, Inc." (chapter 20 in "Alternative Americas" by Mildred Loomis, 1982). Died in 1975 at age 97. Ashes interred under the "Morgan Stone" at Glen Helen, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Papers at Olive Kettering Library, Antioch College. Morgan's first son Ernest Morgan (1905-2000) lived at Celo Community. Ernest's first wife Elizabeth Morey Morgan (d.1971) was a volunteer at Koinonia in 1957 and founded the Arthur Morgan School (AMC) at Celo in 1962. Morgan's second son Griscom Morgan (1912-1993) headed the CSI and helped create The Vale community near Yellow Springs in 1961.
Arthur Morgan wrote:
1936 - "The Long Road"
1942 - "The Small Community: Foundation of Democratic Life"
1944 - "Edward Bellamy" (Socialist who wrote "Looking Backward 2000-1887" in 1887 and "Equality" in 1897)
1946 - "Nowhere was Somewhere: How History makes Utopias and How Utopias Make History"
1953 - "Industries for Small Communities"
1956 - "The Community of the Future and the Future of Community"
1974 - "The Making of the TVA"
Ernest Morgan wrote:
1984 - "Dealing Creatively with Death: A Manual of Death Education and Simple Burial" (10th edition of manual first written in 1961)
1991 - "Arthur Morgan Remembered: Engineer, Educator, Philosopher, Author, Statesman, Apostle of Community"
1999 - "Dealing Creatively with Life: The Life Adventure of Ernest Morgan"
Griscom Morgan wrote:
1971 - "The Future of the Community Heritage"
1988 - "Guidebook for Intentional Communities"

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) (1882-1945)
President, 1933-1945. Married Anna Eleanor Roosevelt in 1905. Endorsed subsistence homesteads in 1931 while still governor of New York. Met with Clarence Pickett at Hyde Park soon after being elected president in November 1932. Appointed populist, pro-inflation Brain Trust led by Raymond Moley and including Rexford Guy Tugwell and Adolph A. Berle Jr, all from Columbia University. Inaugurated president in March 1933. Led Congress to adopt first New Deal legislation by May 1933, including the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Act. Appointed Arthur Morgan first Chairman and Chief Engineer of the TVA. Roosevelt's Interior Secretary (Harold L. Ickes) appointed Clarence Pickett chief of "Stranded Mining and Industrial Populations." The NIRA included $25 million for homesteads. First homestead loan made to "Ralph Borsodi's" Liberty Homesteds in Dayton, Ohio; second homestead loan made to "Eleanor Roosevelt's" Arthurdale in West Virginia. Died in Warm Springs, Georgia, in 1945. Buried with Eleanor in Hyde Park, New York.

Scott Nearing (1883-1983)
Economist, homesteader, orator, and prolific writer. Born 1883 to a wealthy family in Morris Run, Pennsylvania (a coal-mining town). Lived in Arden, Delaware. By 1905, Nearing was speaking out on liberal issues, including the treatment and working conditions of miners. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton College of Economics in 1906 and taught there until he was fired in 1915 for his outspoken opposition to child labor. Taught 1916-1917 at the University of Toledo in Ohio -- the only college that would take him -- until he was also fired from this school for his anti-war stance. Nearing's private papers were seized by the Justice Department (pre-FBI) in 1916. He was charged under the Espionage Act in 1917 for his opposition to World War I, as evidenced in his tract The Great Madness and was tried in February 1919. Nearing saw the trial as a chance to educate and, an eloquent orator, he provided most of his own defense; he was acquited after 30 hours of deliberation. Nearing never had a formal full-time job after this. Most magazines and newspapers, including The Nation, Saturday Evening Post, The New York Times, and The Christian Science Monitor refused to publish his articles. Nearing eventually started his own news service Federated Press and a World Events newsletter. Many of his books were self-published. Joined the Socialist party in 1917 and ran for Congress on that ticket in 1918, losing by a large margin. Left the Socialist party in 1922 because it denounced the Soviet Union. Joined the Communist party in 1927 but left it too, in 1930, when his writings were deemed to clash with Lenin's. Spoke out and wrote on many subjects in the early years of his life, from the dangers of big business, fascism, and war to the plight of women, children, and blacks in America. Scott Nearing and Helen Knothe (1904-1995) met briefly in 1921, then again in 1928, and they were together from that time on, only marrying in 1947 when Scott's first wife Nellie Seeds, from whom he was separated, died. They left New York City in 1932 to live in rural southern Vermont, where they homesteaded and ran a maple-sugaring business for 19 years. They moved to Forest Farm on Penobscot Bay, Harborside, Maine, in 1952, where they again built their own house and outbuildings and began a business raising blueberries. Their homesteading days are well-chronicled in their books. Scott died at age 100 by self-starvation in Harborside on August 24, 1983. Many of his books are now being reissued as the wisdom of his prescient words is recognised by some in the current generation. The Nearings names are on a bronze plaque around the Pacifist Memorial at the Peace Abbey in Sherborn, Mass. Their home Forest Farm is now operated as a memorial to Scott and Helen Nearing called The Good Life Center and hosts Monday night meetings, free tours, and workshops. Nearing wrote:
1808 - Economics (with Frank D. Watson) Social Adjustment (1911)
1911 - The Solution of the Child Labor Problem The Super Race (1912)
1912 - Women and Social Progress (with Nellie Seeds Nearing) Social Sanity (1913) Financing the Wage Earner's Family (1913) Wages in the United States (1914) Reducing the Cost of Living (1914) Income (1915) Anthracite: An Instance of Natural Resource Monopoly (1915/1971) The New Education (1915/1969) Social Religion (1916)
1916 - Poverty and Riches
1916 - Civics (with Jessie Field) The Germs of War: A Study in Preparedness (1916) The Elements of Economics (1918)
1919 - The Trial of Scott Nearing and the American Socialist Society
1921 - "The American Empire,"
1922 - The Next Step
Oil and the Germs of War (1923)
Educational Frontiers (1925) Dollar Diplomacy (1925/1966/1970; with Joseph Freeman) Education in Soviet Russia (1926) The British General Strike (1926) Whither China: An Economic Interpretation of Recent Events in the Far East (1927/1977) The Economic Organization of the Soviet Union (1927) Where is Civilization Going? (1927) Black America (1929/1969) The Twilight of Empire: An Economic Interpretation of Imperialist Cycles (1930) War: Organized Destruction and Mass Murder by Civilized Nations (1931/1971/1972) Must We Starve? (1932)
1932 - "Free Born" (Nearing's only novel, unpublished)
Fascism (1933) United World (1945) The Soviet Union as a World Power (1945) Democracy is Not Enough (1945) The Tragedy of Empire (1945) War or Peace? (1946) The Revolution of Our Time (1947) Economics for the Power Age (1952)
1954 - Man's Search for the Good Life
To Promote the General Welfare (1956) Soviet Education (1958) Freedom: Promise and Menace (1961/1999) Economic Crisis in the United States (1962) Socialism in Practice (1962) Cuba and Latin America (1963)
1965 - "The Conscience of a Radical,"
1970 - "Living the Good Life: How to Live Sanely and Simply in a Troubled World" (with Helen Nearing),
1972 - "The Making of a Radical," and
1975 - "Civilization and Beyond"

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)
"First Lady of the World" (according to President Truman)
"Most influential woman of the 20th century" (according to "Great American Women" website)
Humanitarian. Married Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1905. Created Val-Kill Industries in Val-Kill, New York, in 1925 to make jobs for unemployed workers. Visited Arden and many other communities with Clarence Pickett in 1935. Arthurdale in West Virginia was "Eleanor's favorite project," for which she raised private and Federal money. Died in 1962. Buried with Franklin in Hyde Park, New York.

Clarence Evan Pickett (1884-1965)
Educator and peace advocate. Born in 1884 in Cissna Park, Illinois. Birthright Quaker. National Secretary of Young Friends' Activities. Professor of Biblical Literature at Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana, 1923-1929. Executive Secretary of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) in Philadelphia, 1929-1950. As Federal chief of "Stranded Mining and Industrial Populations," Pickett accompanied Eleanor Roosevelt to Arden and other communities in 1935 and created Westmoreland Homesteads (renamed Norvelt for Eleanor Roosevelt) near Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania. With Arthur Morgan, he helped created Celo Community near Burnsville, North Carolina, in 1935. And the AFSC under Pickett and Homer Morris created Penn-Craft community near Republic, Pennsylvania, in 1936. Pickett and Morris lived adjacent to Pendle Hill in Wallingford near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [Morris contributed $30,000 in 1954 to create the Homer Morris Loan Fund -- later called the Community Educational Service Council, Inc. (CECSI) -- and now called the Community Business Loan Fund of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC).]  Pickett represented AFSC when it and its counterpart in the United Kingdom received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947 and may be the only person ever to demonstrate in LaFayette Square and be honored in the White House on the same day.  He died in 1965 at age 81. See "Witness for Humanity: A Biography of Clarence E. Pickett" by Lawrence McK. Miller, 1999. Pickett wrote:
1934 - "The social significance of the subsistence homestead movement" (article)
1953 - "For More than Bread" (autobiobraphy)

Ralph Borsodi (1888-1977):
"Decentralist supreme" (according to Mildred Loomis)
Social reformer and author. Born in 1888 in New York City. Left a New York advertising career in 1919 to create Seven Acres, a self-sufficient "homestead" in Rockland County, New York. Built Dogwoods Homestead in 1921-1923. Wrote This Ugly Civilization, a famous blast at the growing nightmare of urban industrialism, in 1929, before any of the later environmentalists and ecologists were even born. Documented his withdrawal and experimentation with a rational, logical and scientific subsistence homestead as an alternate way of life in another most premature work Flight From the City in 1933 -- as told by James J. Martin. Hired by Council of Social Agencies to create Production Units in Dayton, Ohio, leading to two subsistence homesteads: Liberty Homesteads and Hyland Home Owners, but left in 1934 when homesteaders voted to accept Federal assistance. Created the School of Living 03 Sep 1934 and Bayard Lane Homesteads in 1935 near Suffern, New York. Helped create Bryn Gweled Homesteads in Southampton, Pennsylvania, in 1939, Melbourne University, Florida, in 1955, and New Communities, Inc., near Albany, Georgia (with Robert Swann) in 1967. Inspired the organic gardening movement, coined the phrase "Green Revolution" (1943), and invented "constant currency" (1972). Guest of honor with Mildred Loomis in Suffern, New York, in May 1973 celebrating 50th anniversary of Dogwoods Homesead. Died in Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1977 after a fall at age 90. Borsodi's Dogwoods was acquired by Laurance Labadie who lived there for 25 years (1950-1975). Borsodi's papers are at the University of New Hampshire and the E.F. Schumacher Soceity, Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Borsodi wrote:
1923 - "National Advertising and Prosperity,"
1926 - "The Distribution Age,"
1929 - "This Ugly Cvilization,"
1933 - "Flight from the City: An Experiment in Creative Living on the Land,"
1934 - "Subsistence Homesteads: President Roosevelt's New Land and Population Policy" (article in Survey Graphic)
1943 - "World Peace Plan"
1948 - "Inflation is Coming: And What To Do About It,"
1948 - "Education and Living,"
1958 - "A Decentralist Manifesto: An Alternative to Monopoly Capitalism and Statist Socialism" (written in Ambala, Punjab, India),
1963 - "The Education of the Whole Man" (written in Simla and Ahmedabad, India)
1968 - "Seventeen Problems of Man and Society," and
1972 - "Inflation And The Coming Keynesian Crisis: The Story Of The Exeter Experiment"

John Andrew Rice (1888-1969)
Classics professor. Born in Mississippi. Rhodes Scholar. Founded Black Mountain College, Black Mountain, North Carolina, 1933-1956. Black Mountain's first campus is now a YMCA Conference Center. One of the documents is a 1978 clipping from the Asheville Citizen about a walking tour of its second campus conducted by local historian Mary Emma Harris. According to the article, George Pickering purchased the site in 1955, and he allows it to be by used by Camp Rockmont for Boys. The website which gave me the impression that the Black Mountain campus is now owned by UNC is Black Mountain College Museum & Arts Center (BMCMAC). This organization has an office on the campus of Warren Wilson College in Swannanoa, North Carolina, and held a Black Mountain retunion in 1996. The genesis of the college began when John Andrew Rice, controversial classics professor at Rollins College in Florida, decided to create a college "based on an idea of community among individuals working and learning together." A collection of buildings owned by the Blue Ridge Assembly of the Protestant Church in Black Mountain, North Carolina became the physical home for this idea. An iconoclast, John Andrew Rice "sought controversy more then most men seek repose…" It was Rice who was the primary force in the creation of Black Mountain College when in 1933 he left his teaching position at Rollins College under a dark cloud of controversy. He was no less controversial at Black Mountain where he was both admired and resented by different factions of the experimental educational community he helped create. With Theodore Dreier and Frederick Georgia, Rice wrote the original "Bylaws" of the college and served as an original member of the Board of Fellows. He became Rector of the college in 1934. However, by March of 1938 he had become effectively a persona non grata at Black Mountain, as much because of his abrasive personality as for his romantic affair with a student. A charismatic and controversial figure, the origins of Black Mountain are intimately connected with Rice and his ideals of community and education. (John's wife Nell Rice was college librarian. She arrived at Black Mountain with him in 1933 and remained associated with Black Mountain longer then any other individual. She stayed on after his ouster in 1939 and became associated with the so-called "cultural conservative" faction at the college. By 1954 she had become effectively isolated and finally broke her ties with Black Mountain in 1955.) Black Mountain never had more than 90 students. Teachers and students included Bauhaus director Josef Albers, Buckminster Fuller, film director Arthur Penn, German mathemetician Max Wilhelm Dehn (1878-1952), and Czech composer Heinrich Jalowetz. Dehn, Jalowetz, and their wives are buried on the Black Mountain campus. The Dehns' daughter Maria Dehn Peters has been a member of Bryn Gweled Homesteads since 1955. See "Visions and Vanities: John Andrew Rice of Black Mountain College" by Katherine Chaddock Reynolds, Louisiana State University Press, May 199.8 Rice wrote:
c1965 - "Autobiography" (critically acclaimed)
c1965 - articles for The New Yorker (in his last few years)

Rexford Guy Tugwell (1891-1979)
"One of the most controversial leaders of the New Deal" (according to Timothy Miller)
Economist and statesman. Attended University of Pennsylvania. Served in World War I. Economics professor at Columbia University, 1920-1932. Active in Morningside Heights Residents Association. Chairman of New York City Planning Commission (NYCOC). Member of President Roosevelt's brain trust. Headed Resettlement Administration (RA), 1935-1936. Instrumental in the creation and development of the Greenbelt towns near Washington, DC, Cincinnati, OH, and Milwaukee, WI. Hired depression-era photographer Walker Evans (also from Columbia). Governor of Puerto Rico, 1937-1946. Lived in Greenbelt, Maryland, in the 1950's. Tugwell has been frequently stereotyped by historians who "saw in him what they wanted to see." Namorato's clear and thorough examination of Tugwell's life is the first complete biography of this prominent political figure. Tugwell wrote 30 books, including:
1922 - "The Economic Basis of Public Interest" (thesis at University of Pennsylvania)
1927 - "Industry's Coming of Age"
1933 - "The Industrial Discipline and the Governmental Arts"
1932 - "Mr. Hoover's Economic Policy"
c1934 - "Our Economic Society and its Problems: a Study of American Levels of Living and How to Improve Them"
1935 - "The Battle for Democracy"
1982 - "To the Lesser Heights of Morningside: A Memoir"

Jerome Irving Rodale (1898-1971)
Organic farmer, accountant, inventor, electronics manufacturer, author, publisher, and playwright. Jewish. Jerome Irving Rodale produced ideas like a factory. The man would stumble out of bed in the middle of the night to record a novel thought. He'd stop in the middle of a vigorous walk to jot down a theory. Friends joked that he had ''idearhea,'' or a continuous flow of concepts. Rodale may be most widely known as a pioneer in organic farming and a guru of the natural food craze, but his interests and accomplishments were ''somewhere in the hundreds of thousands,'' he once said. ''He can't be categorized, he had too many interests,'' his daughter, Ruth Spira, said. ''The complexity of his life was his eternal curiosity.'' Early on, Rodale worked in different jobs to support this interest, which he described as a process that left the soil healthy. ''My intentions at present are to stick to accounting until a favorable opportunity presents itself for going into business,'' Rodale wrote to a good friend in 1918, ''and then as soon as I or we can accumulate enough money, say at about the age of 30 or even sooner, to get out as quick as we can to God's land.'' In one of his most successful magazines, Organic Gardening and Farming, Rodale wrote in support of using animal manure for fertilizer and shunned the use of chemicals on farms. He ran countless experiments on his Emmaus farm to find the healthiest vegetation, using everything from basalt rock powder to electricity. Rodale also was an advocate of nutritional supplements years before mainstream America caught on to their benefits. At one point, he reportedly took more than 100 supplements a day, ranging from bone meal to halibut liver oil. Yet many initially wrote him off as bizarre or unscientific. Rodale, sporting a goatee and mustache, engaged in his fair share of unusual habits and ideas. He never used shampoo, believing a vigorous rub with water was sufficient. He started a humor magazine in the middle of the Depression because he felt laughs were needed. (It flopped.) On a more academic note, many scientists and professors discounted Rodale because he presented reader testimonials in his magazines as research, instead of conducting legitimate scientific experiments. His claims eventually led to runins with the Federal Trade Commission, the American Medical Association, and the Food and Drug Administration. But Rodale was unfazed by the lack of support, Spira said. ''He was the eternal optimist,'' she said. ''He was so convinced that everything he did was the best for the American people.'' The source of some of this energy and confidence could have come from his upbringing, Spira said. Rodale was born in 1898 on the Lower East Side of New York. His father, who emigrated from Poland, raised him to be a rabbi. Young Rodale grew up admiring Andrew Carnegie and reading Horatio Alger novels. By age 12, he had decided he wanted to be an editor and novelist by 21. In his 20s, he changed his name from Cohen to Rodale (pronounced RO-dale, a transformation of his mother's maiden name, Rouda). Rodale felt a Jewish name was a handicap. The name change wasn't the only time he did what he believed necessary to accomplish his goals. When he could not find a publisher for his materials, Rodale created a publishing company. At the time of his death in 1971, his publishing companies were grossing $9 million a year. When Rodale could not find companies to produce some of the 40 plays he wrote later in life, he bought his own theater in New York City. -- ELEANOR YANG Started publishing Prevention in 1948 and Organic Gardening in 1953. See the Rodale Press in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, and the Rodale Institute in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. See "Rodales at the School of Living" (chapter 10 in "Alternative Americas" by Mildred Loomis, 1982). J.I. Rodale wrote:
About 40 plays.
Robert Rodale wrote:
1972 - "Sane Living in a Mad World"

Laurance (Larry) Labadie (1898-1975)
"Best known 'individualist anarchist' of his generation."
Tool maker and self-taught essayist. Born in Detroit in 1898. Son of Joseph A. (Jo) Labadie (1850-1933). "Some libertarians (such as Wendy McElroy, Lawrence [sic] Labadie, David Friedman, Brian Micklethwait and the late Murray Rothbard) are anarchists, but most are minarchists. Minarchism holds Thomas Jefferson's motto, 'That government is best which governs least,' while anarchism follows Henry David Thoreau to the conclusion that 'Who governs best, governs not at all.' Many nineteenth-century American anarchists (such as Josiah Warren , Lysander Spooner, and Benjamin R. Tucker) were also libertarians" (quoting Mark LaRochelle). Labadie was involved after World War II with Ralph Borsodi and lived for a while in the late 1940's at Lane's End Homestead in Brookville, Ohio, with John and Mildred Loomis. According to James J. Martin, Labadie helped Loomis appreciate the ideas of Josiah Warren, Lysander Spooner, and Benjamin R. Tucker. His economic advice to a young married couple fills three chapters of Loomis' 1965 book "Go Ahead and Live!" Labadie had a home in Detroit until he acquired Borsodi's house Dogwoods near Suffern, New York, in 1950. He lived at Dogwoods until 1975 and received Borsodi and Loomis there during their 50th anniversary reunion in Suffern in May 1973. Labadie wrote:
1978 - "Laurance Labadie: Selected Essays" (edited by James J. Martin)

Mildred Jansen Loomis (1900-1986)
"Grandmother of the Counter-Culture" (according to the publisher of "Alternative Americas")
"An articulate spokeswoman in the cause of Ralph Borsodi" (according to James J. Martin)
Activist. Born in 1900 in Nebraska. Moved to Dayton, Ohio, in 1928, taught schoolchildren for the Weekday School of Religion, and lived with 11 co-workers (including Georgia Synder) in a cooperative household until being laid off following the Dayton bank holiday on 06 Mar 1932. Moved (with Synder and 4 others) to New York City in 1932 and obtained masters degree from Columbia University. Saw poverty in the Bowery ghetto as part of a course ("Ethical interpretation of current events") taught by Reinhold Niebuhr. Then did social work in Chicago for 2-3 years while living at the Eli Bates Settlement House in "Little Hell" 10 blocks from the Loop. Met Ralph Borsodi in Dayton, Ohio, in June 1934. Lived at Liberty Homesteads west of Dayton. Spent Summer of 1938 at Pendle Hill. Worked with Borsodi at Suffern, New York, in from Summer 1939 until 31 May 1940. Married widowed John Loomis (a former member of the New Llano Cooperative Colony near Leesville, Louisiana) in June 1940 and lived thereafter at Lane's End Homestead in Brookville (Johnsville), Ohio, near Dayton, until 1970. Created "a" School of Living (SOL) at Lane's End and took over Ralph Borsodi's original School of Living (SOL) in 1945. Laurance Labadie lived at Lane's End in the late 1940's. Two years after John's death in August 1968, Mildred moved to Freeland, Maryland, and lived adjacent to Heathcote Community. Moved in 1974 to Deep Run Farm near York, Pennsylvania, where SOL her home was called the "Borsodi Memorial Library". Guest of honor with Ralph Borsodi at a celebration in Suffern, New York, in May 1973 of the 50th anniversary of Borsodi's Dogwoods Homesead. "Her incredible energy in advancing [the] ideas and programs [of the decentralist impulse] was easily the most important factor in the spread of interest in this mode of life in the quarter of a century after the end of World War II." Died at Deep Run Farm 18 Sep 1986 at age 86. The School of Living (SOL) is now trustee for 4-5 community land trusts (CLT's) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, has an office at Birthright Center near Cochranville, Pennsylvania, and sponsors the Alternative Education Resource Organization (AERO) in Roslyn Heights, New York. Loomis wrote:
1965 - "Go Ahead and Live!" with three chapters attributed to Laurance Labadie (available from SOL),
1978 - "Ralph Borsodi's Principles for Homesteaders",
1980 - "Decentralism: Where It Came From, Where Is It Going?" (published by SOL with photos and maps, including map of Bryn Gweled Homesteads),
1982 - "Alternative Americas" (revised version of "Decentralism;" editions exist with and without photos/maps),
1986 - "Borsodi as I Knew Him" (a collection of 25 testimonials), and
1992 - "Ralph Borsodi: Reshaping Modern Culture: The Story of the School of Living and its Founder" (published posthumously, available from SOL).

Georgia Snyder Bergstrom (c1900-1985)
Teacher. Quaker. Born about 1900 in southern Indiana. Worked with Mildred Jansen Loomis and met Ralph Borsodi in Dayton, Ohio. Moved with Jansen to attend Columbia University in New York City. Worked for YWCA in New York (and later in Pennsylvania). Married Methodist minister Herbert G. Bergstrom (1898-1993) in 1934. Attended many weekend conferences on cooperative living given by Borsodi in 1935 at School of Living in Suffern, New York. Moved to Philadelphia when Herb became director of Bedford Center, a Quaker-led settlement house for the underprivileged in "a more or less slum area" at 619 Kater Street which set up the first planned parenthood activities in Philadelphia. (Also working at Bedford Center were Wayne Adelbert Dockhorn (d.1979), Marian Siddall Dockhorn (1908-2000), and Helen Knapp (d.1992). Stained glass artist Joseph Diano (1904-1987) was a Bedford Center board member who lived on Kater Street until he moved about 1935 to the Carl Mackley Apartments, the first housing development constructed under President Roosevelt's New Deal.) Visited England and Scandinavia in 1938 to study "private, public, and cooperative housing developments" -- and was therefore probably well aware of The Stockholm Plan for owner-built housing. The Bergstroms, the Dockhorns, Knapp, and Diano (who later married) repeatedly visited Ralph Borsodi and Mildred Jansen at the School of Living in 1939. Borsodi assisted them and ten other couples to found Bryn Gweled Homesteads near Philadelphia in Southampton, Pennsylvania, in 1940. Georgia and Herb also helped create Southampton Friends Meeting across the road from Bryn Gweled in 1947. Georgia and other BG members worked for Morris Milgram when Concord Park, opened near Bryn Gweled in 1954. When Levittown, a vast nearby housing project, was integrated in 1957, Georgia and other BG members visited and helped protect Levittown's first African-American family. Died about age 85 in 1985.

Myles Horton (1905-1990)
Educator. Presbyterian. Born in Savannah, Tennessee, in 1905. In 1932 at age 27 founded Highlander Folk School in Monteagle, Tennessee. A student of Reinhold Niebuhr at Union Theological Seminary, Columbia University, Horton had visited Copenhagen to observe firsthand the Danish "folkehøjskole" (folk schools) which became the model for Highlander. He believed that if everyday people could come together to discuss problems and share their experiences they could solve their problems. He strongly believed in peer education, in people becoming their own experts, doing their own research, testing their ideas by taking action, analyzing their actions, and learning from their experiences. Horton began his educational work among his neighbors in Grundy County, Tennessee, with farmers, miners, woodcutters, and mill hands--those who are bypassed by ordinary educational institutions. Highlander was committed to education for social change and to workers’ rights to organize. Horton developed labor education classes, and the school was instrumental in the CIO organizing drive in the South. Pete Seager learned "We Shall Overcome" from Mrs. Horton at Highlander. Eleanor Roosevelt created controversy by participating in a Highlander program in 1958. Highlander was investigated by the FBI and closed by the state of Tennessee in 1960. Horton relocated Highlander under a new name Highlander Research and Education Center and was already at work among the disenfranchised people in the poorest region of the country when the Great Society’s War on Poverty came to Appalachia. Con Browne moved from Koinonia community near Americus, Georgia, to join Horton in 1963. Later, Horton and Browne focused Highlander’s resources and programs on school desegregation, voter education, citizenship schools, and the civil rights movement. Highlander’s work has received national and international recognition. In 1982, Bill Moyers interviewed Horton for a PBS documentary praising Highlander’s “special kind of teaching--helping people to discover within themselves the courage and ability to confront reality and change it.” Also in 1982, Highlander was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize for its historic role in providing education on behalf of human rights in the region. In 1986, Horton was introduced by Ernest Morgan at a national meeting of the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR) where he received its annual award for creative social change. In 1990, Time magazine called Highlander “one of the South’s most influential institutions of social change,” and Horton's obituary in the New York Times echoed this claim. Horton wrote:
1990 - "The Long Haul: An Autobiography" (with preface by Bill Moyers, won the Robert F. Kennedy Book Award posthumously)

Marian Siddall Dockhorn (1908-2000)
Civil rights leader. Quaker. Born 1908 in Cleveland, Ohio. Moved to Philadelphia in 1933 and worked on racial integration for YMCA. Married Methodist minister Wayne Adelbert Dockhorn (d.1979) in 1935 in Marburg, Germany. Both worked for Rev. Herbert G. Bergstrom, director of Bedford Center, a Quaker-led settlement housein Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Bergstroms, the Dockhorns, Joseph Diano, and Helen Knapp repeatedly visited Ralph Borsodi and Mildred Jansen Loomis at the School of Living in Suffern, New York, in 1939. Borsodi assisted them and ten other couples to found Bryn Gweled Homesteads near Philadelphia in Southampton, Pennsylvania, in 1940. Marian helped create Southampton Friends Meeting across Gravel Hill Road from Bryn Gweled in 1947. Active in Women's International league for Peace (WILPF) and the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR). Marian and other BG members worked for Morris Milgram when Concord Park, opened near Bryn Gweled in 1954.  She therefore knew Robert Swann. When Levittown, a vast nearby housing project, was integrated in 1957, Marian and other "Bryn Gweleders" visited and helped protect Levittown's first African-American family. Marian founded the Bucks County Peace Fair in 1958 and (at age 78) went to Nicaragua with Witness for Peace in 1987. She died age 92 in 2000 in her own home at Bryn Gweled Homesteads, survived by two sons and one daughter. She outlived all of Bryn Gweled's other founders (except for one who moved to the Bruderhof community in Rifton, New York, before building at BG).

Robert Forsythe (Bob) Bishop (1908-1984)
Architect. Quaker. Born in Philadelphia in 1908. Studied architecture at University of Pennsylvania and attended lectures there by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1932. Spent three years 1932-35 working with Wright at Taliesen in Spring Green, Wisconsin. Helped Wright exhibit Broadacre City in New York City in 1935. Became member of Bryn Gweled Homesteads in 1940. Designed Greenbelt Knoll (1952-1956) for Morris Milgram, Swarthmore College faculty houses (1947), and twelve of Bryn Gweled's 73 houses, including the oldest house (1941), his own house (1947), the newest house (1978), and one (1942) in partnership with architect Paul (Henry) Beidler (b.1906) of Easton, Pennsylvania. (Beidler was at Taliesen with Bishop, taught in 1945-1946 at Black Mountain College in North Carolina where he built a music practice building, and remodeled the Forest Theater at the University of North Carolina in 1948. Beidler was an early member of Bryn Gweled but never moved there from Easton.) Bishop was a lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania, 1952-1960. See "Bryn Gweled: [The architecture of] A co-operative homestead development in Pennsylania" in Pencil Points, March 1946, pp. 65-88.

E. F. (Fritz) Schumacher (1911-1977)
Ernst Friedrich ("Fritz") Schumacher was born in Germany in 1911, trained in economics and went to England as a Rhodes Scholar. Like many Germans living in Britain, he was interned for a time during World War II. Later, he was released to do farm work, an experience that strongly influenced his later work. While pursuing a career as a government economist (he was chief economic advisor for the National Coal Board for 20 years), he became involved in organic farming and in 1966 founded the Intermediate Technology Development Group, an organization that promotes small-scale technology tailored to the needs of developing countries. Schumacher died in 1977 (same year as Ralph Borsodi). More than any other single individual, he is responsible for popularizing the notion of appropriate technology. Born in Germany and educated in England, was for many years the head of planning at the British Coal Board. "Schumacher has been a Rhodes Scholar in economics, an economic advisor to the British Control Commission in postwar Germany, and, for the twenty years prior to 1971, the top economist and head of planning at the British Coal Board. It is a background that might suggest stuffy orthodoxy, but that would be exactly wrong. For there is another side to Schumacher, and it is there we find the vision of economics reflected in these pages. It is an intriguing mix: the president of the Soil Association, one of Britain's oldest organic farming organizations; the founder and chairman of the Intermediate Technology Development Group, which specializes in tailoring tools, small-scale machines, and methods of production to the needs of developing countries; a sponsor of the Fourth World Movement, a British-based campaign for political decentralization and regionalism; a director of the Scott Bader Company, a pioneering effort at common ownerhip and workers' control; a close student of Gandhi, nonviolence, and ecology."--Theodore Roszak, from the introduction to Small is Beautiful. Robert Swann’s organization, the Institute for Community Economics (ICE) sponsored the historic US tour of E. F. Schumacher in 1974. Schumacher's papers are deposited at the E.F. Schumacher Society in Great Barrington, Massachusetts (which Swann created in 1980). Schumacher wrote
1973 - "Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered."

Clarence Leonard Jordan (1912-1969)
Baptist minister and integrationist. Born in1912 in Talbotton, Georgia. Founded Koinonia community near Americus, Georgia, in 1942. Jordan's assistant Con Browne left Koinonia in 1963 to replace Myles Horton when he retired from Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. Jordan colaborated with Millard Fuller, and they spun off Habitat for Humanity which is now headquartered in nearby Americus, Georgia. Koinonia has changed many times over the years and has had "Partners" in various parts of the US, including Robert Swann. Jordan died in 1969 at age 58. See "Interracialism and Christian Community in the Postwar South: The Story of Koinonia Farm" by Tracy Elane K'Meyer, 1997. Jordan wrote:
1956 - "Christian Community in the South"
1970 - "The Cotton Patch Version of Matthew and John"
1972 - "The Substance of Faith and Other Cotton Patch Sermons"

Ralph T. Templin (1913-1994)
Missionary, educator, publisher, and social activist. Methodist. Married Lila Horton in 1920. Templin was a missionary in India from 1925 to 1940. While working in India, he created a cooperative education method to provide opportunity for senior boys in the Methodist school to take part in the building of various structures for local villages. Templin was a founding member of the Peacemakers movement, after the assassination of Mahatma Ghandi. When he returned to the United States, he continued Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolence in all areas of his active ministry. Co-director of the School for Living from December 1940 until 1945, with his wife Lila and with Paul and Betty Keene. As professor of sociology at Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio, 1948-1968, Templin was its first white faculty member. In 1954 he was the first white clergyperson to be received in full connection within the Central Jurisdiction. Fasted to protest suppression of Puerto Rican independence nationalist movement. Refused to pay taxes, did not register for the draft during World War II, and refused to appear before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) during the McCarthy era. Templin died in 1984 age 81. His papers are deposited at the General Commission on Archives and History of the United Methodist Church, Madison, New Jersey. Templin wrote:
1965 - "Democracy and Non-Violence" (available from Community Service, Inc.)

J. Heinrich (Heini) Arnold [c1915-1982]
Bruderhof leader. Born in Germany. Son of Eberhard and Emily Arnold. Revitalized the Bruderhof Communities in the 1950's and brought the movement to the United States from Paraguay. Woodcrest, first Bruderhof in US, opened at Rifton, New York, in 1954. (Click here for a brief history by Timothy Miller.) Communitarians left Macedonia Cooperative Community in Georgia, Celo Community in North Carolina, Bryn Gweled Homesteads in Pennsylvania, and other US communities to join the Bruderhof circa 1954-1957. The Bruderhof were members of the original Fellowship of Intentional Communities (FIC) -- and attended the Intercommunity Exchange Conference at Pendle Hill in 1952 -- but withdrew from the FIC by sending a message to a FIC meeting at Pendle Hill in 1958. Primavera, the Bruderhof colony in Paraguay, was closed in 1961. Heini's wife Annamarie died in 1980, and he died in 1982. Their son, Johann Christoph Arnold became Elder in 1983 and now directs the Bruderhof Communities from the central Bruderhof in Rifton.

Morris Milgram (1916-1997)
"A vital and energetic human being" (according to Eleanor Roosevelt)
"Entrepreneur of racially integrated housing" (according to the University of Pennsylvania)
See Greenbelt Knoll (1952-1956) . Home builder and integrationist. Born in 1916. Spent ten years in the rural South fighting for racial justice and became national secretary of the Workers Defense League. Met Marjorie Schaefer (future wife of Robert Swann) when both worked for the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) during World War II. After the war, Milgram built houses for whites only with his father-in-law William Smelo. When Smelo died in 1951, he partnered with George Otto, a builder in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and chairman of the Friends Social Order Committee and with William H. Gray, pastor of the Bright Hope Baptist Church, to buy 50-acres near Trevose and build Concord Park. Morris Milgram was a pioneer in the development of integrated housing. Few individuals have played a more significant role in the development of multiracial communities. His first community, Concord Park, consisted of 139 detached homes (some desined by Robert Swann) and opened in 1954 in Bensalem, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. "America's first community designed for integration." There was talk of a "perfect" society in Bucks County. Life magazine was more cautious. Editors dispatched a team of reporters and photographers to capture the spirit of the original homebuyers, but decided not to publish the story, reportedly because the news might disturb southern readers. The year was 1954 and there were 139 new ranch houses in Concord Park. Concord Park is only three miles from Bryn Gweled Homesteads, and several Bryn Gweled residents helped sell Concord Park homes in 1954. Later, several families, both black and white, moved from Concord Park to Bryn Gweled where they still live. Milgram hired Bryn Gweled member Robert Bishop to design Greenbelt Knolls. In 1958, his first national company had its founding dinner in New York City, honoring Kivie Kaplan and Jackie Robinson, with Adlai Stevenson as the keynote speaker. In 1964 he was featured as a civil rights pioneer in the nationally televised documentary Seven Who Dared. In 1968 he become the first recipient of the National Human Rights Award from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. In 1975, Milgram was instrumental in the formation of the Fund for an OPEN Society in Philadelphia, of which he was president. OPEN is a non-profit organization that provides affordable mortgages for home purchases that increase diversity. The fund also grants emergency loans, enabling renters to become owners, and modest-income families to retain their homes and convert apartment houses to co-ops in gentrifying areas. More than 13,000 individuals and institutions have invested more than $40 million in companies developed under Milgram's leadership. Morris Milgram died in 1997 at age 81. MORRIS MILGRIM DIES Below is an obituary of Morris Milgram, who died last June. The Socio-Path confers on him our highest award to non-majors, that of Honorary Sociologist. June 26, 1997 Morris Milgram, 81, Who Built Interracial Housing By LAWRENCE VAN GELDER Morris Milgram, who made reality of his ideals by building and fostering interracial private housing from coast to coast, died on Sunday at the Attleboro Nursing and Rehabilitation Center in Langhorne, Pa. He was 81. The cause was a stroke, said his son, Gene. Born into poverty as the youngest of six children of an immigrant Russian peddler on the Lower East Side of New York City, Milgram grew up on socialist principles, was expelled from City College in 1934 for opposing a reception for young Italian fascists, battled the corrupt politics and repression of Mayor Frank Hague of Jersey City, N.J., and eventually devoted his life to constructing and opening housing to blacks and his fellow whites. "If we don't learn to live together, soon the world is going to come apart," he said in a 1969 interview. Until he entered Attleboro in 1990, Milgram lived for many years in Greenbelt Knoll, one of his developments, in northeast Philadelphia, or in Brookside, another of his developments, in Newtown, Pa., a Philadelphia suburb. "He believed in living what you preach," his son said Wednesday. "He hated phonies." Milgram was instrumental in building or managing integrated housing for some 20,000 people, not only in the Philadelphia area but also in Boston; Cambridge, Mass.; Chicago; Princeton, N.J., and Washington, as well as in California, Maryland, New York, Texas and Virginia. At first he was a builder; but in the mid-1960s, after failing in an effort to build an interracial community in all-white Deerfield, Ill., Milgram and his associates bought existing housing and changed the rental policies to accommodate blacks. Among the companies he established was the Fund for an Open Society in Philadelphia, in 1975. With the civil-rights leader James Farmer as a founder and with the author James Michener as its honorary chairman, the fund helps people who move to integrated housing to obtain low-cost mortgages. After he was expelled from City College at 18, Milgram was taken in by Dana College, later Newark University and now a part of Rutgers. "President Frank Kingdon said it was an honor to be expelled from City," Milgram recalled. He received a bachelor's degree in 1939 and accepted a job in New Jersey with the Workers Defense League, a civil-rights organization founded by socialists and liberals principally to help Southern sharecroppers. After a decade in which he rose to national secretary of the league, Milgram received from William Smelo, then his father-in-law, yet another semiannual invitation to become a partner in his small contracting business in Philadelphia. This time Milgram responded, "I will if I can build for any of my friends." Some of his friends were black. Smelo agreed, if Milgram would set about learning the construction business. After Smelo's death a few years later, Milgram, through a friend, put a $2,500 deposit on an isolated nine-acre tract in northeast Philadelphia. He obtained $200 each in deposits from seven white and five black families. Then as his debts piled up and his capital dwindled after a promise of $1 million in financing fell through, hope was all but lost. But he found backing from the American Friends Service Society and a Quaker builder. By the late 1950s he was able to construct more than 100 homes in Greenbelt Knoll and Concord Park in Trevose, Pa., near Philadelphia. Concord Park, his first community, opened in 1954 with 139 detached homes. In Greenbelt Knolls, the homes sold originally for an average of $19,000 to $22,500. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy asked Angier Biddle Duke, his chief of protocol, to find a housing developer to buy white apartment communities and open them to ensure that nonwhite diplomats would not be rejected. After Duke spoke to a group of Milgram's investors, they bought three communities with a total of 633 units in the Washington area and integrated them without incident. Milgram was the first recipient, in 1968, of the National Human Rights Award of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. In addition to his son, Gene, of Lusby, Md., and his daughter, Betty, of Silver Spring, Md., Milgram is survived by a sister, Mary Parker of Shaker Heights, Ohio.

Paul Keene (19??-Alive)
Organic farmer. Methodist. Taught math as missionary in India in 1930's but was dismissed for associating with followers of Mahatma Ghandi. Visited Ralph Borsodi in Suffren, New York, and served with his wife Betty and Ralph and Lila Templin as co-directors of Borsodi's School of Living (SOL), 1941-1944. Knew John Ewbank in 1945. Heard by Robert Swann and Tim Lefever when he advocated self-education and self-development via communities at the 1944 conference of the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR) in Lakeside, Ohio. In March 1946, Paul and Betty founded Walnut Acres, one of the first organic farms in the US, in Penns Creek, Synder County, Pennsylvania. See "Walnut Acres: Chosing to Stay Small" (chapter 13 in "Alternative Americas" by Mildred Loomis, 1982). In 1998, Keene received the annual Organic Leadership Award for his lifetime achievement during the Natural Products Expo. By 1999, Walnut Acres operated a 600 acre farm, was mailing over 2 million catalogs annually, and had 100 employees, 300,000 customers, and over $7 million in annual sales. The Walnut Acres Foundation, Inc. supported a home and school for orphans in India and a community center in Penns Creek. But a majority stake was purchased in August 1999 for $4 million by AOL investor David C. Cole who announced plans to link Walnut Acres to his family's Sunnyside Farms in Washington, Virginia. Walnut Acres stopped operating in Summer of 2000, the Walnut Acres plant and website were closed, and its employees laid off "at least temporarily" due to the "facility's remote geographic location." In 2001, the Walnut Acres trademark was adquired by Acirca, Inc. of New Rochelle, New Yorik, "product offerings [were reduced] from 1,500 to less than 20," the mail catalog business was discontinued, and a new advertising campaign was lauched for ready-to-serve soups and organic salsas.  Keene wrote:
1988 - "Fear Not to Plant Because of the Birds: Essays on Country Living and Natural Farming from Walnut Acres" (edited by Dorothy Jane Mills Seymour)

David Dellinger (1915-Alive)
Pacifist and radical. Leader of anarchist/pacifist Glen Gardner Cooperative Community (also known as St. Francis Acres) in Glen Gardner, New Jersey, 1947-1968. Paul Goodman, David Dellinger and Bertrand Russell were among the main contributors to the monthly Liberation, started in 1956 by pacifist philosopher A. J. Muste and folded in 1977, which took the pacifism and non-violent activism of the Catholic Worker and added intellectual anarchism to the mix. Tangible link to the radicals of the 1960s, Dellinger, became widely known for his pacifist activism and literary polemics, especially against the war in Vietnam. Dellinger eventually was one of the Chicago Seven who were tried for conspiracy for organizing demonstrations at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He was only one of several sixties radicals who had earlier been involved in communal living; another was Stoughton Lynd. Dellinger wrote:
1971 - "Revolutionary Non-Violence"
1975 - "More Power than We Know: The People's Movement Toward Democracy"
1996 - "From Yale to Jail: The Life Story of a Moral Dissenter"

Alfred F. Andersen (c1915-Alive)
Philosopher and communitarian. PhD from University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Worked with Arthur Morgan and Griscom Morgan at Community Service, Inc. (CSI) in Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he built a freezer with Robert Swann and helped create the original Fellowship of Intentional Communities (old FIC) in 1948-53. President of the FIC circa 1960. Member and resident of Tanguy Homesteads, Glen Mills, Pennsylvania, circa 1953-1963.  Moved to Berkeley, California, in the 1960's and was active in the free speech movement.  Sensing an informal revival of the FIC in the Eastern states, Andersen tried (but failed) in 1975 to organize an "FIC West" from Ananda Village, a meditation/yoga community near Nevada City, California. He wrote a eulogy for Griscom Morgan in 1993 which explained the origins of the original FIC and of the term "intentional community" in 1948-53. Andersen remains connected to the Fellowship for Intentional Community (new FIC). He is founder of the Tom Paine Institute and its director since about 1980. Resident of Eugene, Oregon, since about 1990. E-mail Andersen wrote:
1975 - "What is the Fellowship of Intentional Communities West?" (mailing)
1985 - "Liberating the Early American Dream" (book)
1996 - "Fellowship [for Intentional Community] Roots: Where We've Been, Where We Might Go" (paper)
1996 - "Challenging Newt Gingrich: Chapter by Chapter" (book, available from Community Service Inc.).

John Robert Ewbank (1916-Alive)
Patent attorney and decentralist. Born in southern Indiana. Quaker. Graduate of Indianapolis Law School. Resident of Bryn Gweled Homesteads since 1952. Administered the Community Educational Service Council, Inc. (CECSI) -- formerly the Homer Morris Loan Fund -- until it became the Community Business Loan Fund of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC). Long-time member of the School of Living (SOL). Founder and president of Home Rule Globally. His wife Marjorie Ledman Ewbank heads the Tract Association of Friends (TAF) and the American Movement for World Government (AMWG). John and Marjorie celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary in 2000. E-mail Ewbank wrote:
1998 - "Libertarian Legal Code"
2001 - Letter to the editor

Grace Trimmer Lefevre (19??-Alive)
Nutritionist. Created Sonnewald Homestead in 1955 with her husband Harold R. (Tim) Lefevre (d.1996) -- now called Sonnewald Natural Foods, an organic farm and natural food store, in Spring Grove near York, Pennsylvania. (Tim introduced Robert Swann to the works of Ralph Borsodi while both were emprisoned as conscientious objectors during World War II.  Tim heard Paul Keene when he advocated self-education and self-development via communities at the 1944 conference of the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR) in Lakeside, Ohio.) Grace attended classes given by Ralph Borsodi in Exeter, New Hampshire. She was a close friend of Mildred Loomis (who also lived near York, Pennsylvania) and is a
long-time member of the School of Living (SOL). Helped create Heathcote Community near Freeland, Maryland, as an SOL extension in 1965. Conducts "weed walks" and chairs the annual conferences of the Pennsylvania Natural Living Association (PANLA). See "interview with Grace Lefevre" and "Sonnewald: Self-Sufficiency, Home Industry, and Social Outreach" (chapter 16 in "Alternative Americas" by Mildred Loomis, 1982). Grace's daughter Willa Lefevre, who formerly lived in a commune in Iowa, now manages the Sonnewald Natural Foods store in Spring Grove.

Robert (Bob) Swann (1918-Alive)
"Land reformer" (according to himself).
"Father of the community land trust movement" (according to the E.F. Schumacher Society)
Also house builder, peace activist, and organizer. From Cleveland Heights, Ohio. Met Tim Lefever while both were  emprisoned during World War II as a conscientious objectors.  Took a correspondence course developed by Ralph T. Templin, co-director of the School of Living, which included Ralph Borsodi's "Flight from the City" and Arthur Morgan's "The Small Community.” Subsequently worked with Arthur Morgan in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Heard Paul Keene when he advocated self-education and self-development via communities at the 1944 conference of the Fellowship of Reconcilation (FOR) in Lakeside, Ohio. Helped Tim Lefevre build early solar-heated home at Sonnewald Homestead near York, Pennsylvania, and was construction manager for Frank Lloyd Wright homes at Parkwyn Village in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Swann was also influenced by the history of Arden and other Georgist land trusts. Became convinced that centralized control of land and money was the basis of conflict between nation states and devoted much time to the civil rights and antinuclear movements. In 1954 worked with Morris Milgram on the construction of Concord Park, Linconia, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Met Ralph Borsodi in June 1966 and teamed with him in 1967 to create the International Independence Institute (III). Teamed with Slater King (a relative of Martin Luther King, Jr.) in 1968 to create New Communities, Inc., near Albany, Georgia, for African-American farmers, modelled on the lease agreements of the Jewish National Fund. In 1972 the III wrote and the Center for Community Economic Development published the first guide to community land trusts (CLT's). In 1972-1973 Swann and Borsodi launched the Constant (a commodity backed currency) in Exeter, New Hampshire, and established the Community Investment Fund (one of the first US social investment initiatives with positive criteria). In 1973 Swann changed the name of the III to the Institute for Community Economics (ICE) (now in Springfield, Massachusetts) serving as its director until 1985. Swann sponsored E.F. Schumacher’s historic US tour in 1974, helped create the E.F. Schumacher Society, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, in 1980, and is still president of its board of directors. Moved with his partner Susan Witt to the Berkshire Mountains in 1980. Now lives near Tanglewood in Lenox, Massachusetts. See "The Community Land Trust" (chapter 21 in "Alternative Americas" by Mildred Loomis, 1982). Swann wrote or editted:
1972 - The Community Land Trust: A Guide to a New Model for Land Tenure for America" (which includes the by-laws of New Communities, Inc. and Bryn Gweled Homesteads)
2001 - "Peace, Civil Rights, and the Search for Community: An Autobiography".

Art Wiser (19??-Alive?)
Communitarian. With his wife Mary Wiser, members before and as of 1954 (along with Van and Alma Kneeland and Dick and Dorothy Mommsen) of the Christian Macedonia Cooperative Community (founded in Clarkesville, Georgia, in 1937 by "liberal southern educator" Morris Randolf Mitchell [1895-1976]). When Community Service, Inc. (CSI) held meetings in the late 1940's, "Art Wiser from Macedonia showed exceptional interest. So much so that he assumed leadership of the new organization of cooperative communities initiated at that time." (according to Alfred F. Andersen). The "Inter-Community Exchange evolved largely under the direction of Art Wiser into the Fellowship of Intentional Communities (FIC)...closely tied to Community Service, Inc. (CSI) (according to Timothy Miller 1998, p. 163). "When the Bruderhof decided to open an American community, pioneer members spent several weeks in 1953 and 1954 at Macedonia exploring the possibility of a 3-way venture combining the two groups along with the Quaker Kingwood Community of Frenchtown, NJ. Macedonia continued to have frequent contact with the Bruderhof in 1954-57 because Community Playthings, which had been created at Macedonia, was jointly operated by the two communities. In June 1957, the Bruderhof and Macedonia decided to dissolve their business relationship and to proceed as two separate businesses, Community Playthings and Macedonia Blocks." (according to an account in the FIT newsletter). The Wisers moved shortly thereafter to the Woodcrest Bruderhof in Rifton, NY, where Art became a Bruderhof leader.

Melvin Norris (Mel) Leasure (1921-Alive)
Communitarian and teacher. Quaker. Taught in Detroit Public School System. Resided at Cooperative Homesteads, Madison Heights, Michigan (for which Frank Lloyd Wright's 1942 designs were never realized) when it was sold for $11,000 per acre in 1979. Used his share to help found Common Ground Community near Lexington, Virginia, in 1980 as a community land trust (CLT) of the School of Living (SOL). Leasure is a past president of the SOL. His daughter Rita Jane Leasure suceeded him in 1994 and has been president ever since. Rita Jane's partner Herb Goldstein was a colaborator of Mildred Loomis.  No e-mail address. Leasure wrote:
2000 - "Mel's Story: A Personal Calling" (published in SOL's "Green Revolution")

Oved Iaacov (19??-Alive)
Professor Emeritus, Tel Aviv University. Long-time member of the Kibbutz Studies Centres. Founder in 1985 and first president of the the International Communal Studies Association (ICSA). Lives at Kibbutz Palmahim in Israel. E-mail Iaacov wrote:
1988 - "Two hundred years of American communes"
1996 - "The witness of the Brothers: A history of the Bruderhof"
2000 - "Ararchism in the Kibbutz Movement including many ideas borrowed from Peter Kropotkin prior to 1925.

Donald E. Pitzer (19??-Alive)
Professor of History, University of Southern Indiana (USI), Evansville, Indiana. Founder in 1976 and director of the USI's Center for Communal Studies. Founder in 1975 and past executive director of the Communal Studies Association (CSA).
One of five "incorporators" of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC) in August 1986 (the other four were A. Allen Butcher, Charles Betterton, Laird Schaub/Sandhill, and Dan Christenberry/Questenberry).  Past president of the International Communal Studies Association (ICSA). E-mail Pitzer wrote:
1979 - "Robert Owen's American Legacy"
1985 - Special issue of Communities magazine on historic communal societies (guest editor)
1994 - "The New Moral World of Robert Owen and New Harmony"
1998 - "William Maclure's Boatload of Knowledge: Science and Education into the Midwest"

Staughton Lynd (1930-Alive)
"Firebrand in the social tumult of the late 1960's" (according to Timothy Miller)
Communitarian and labor lawyer. Quaker. Son of Columbia University sociologists Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd who wrote Middletown, the famous sociological study of Muncie, Indiana, in 1929. Taught Alice Walker, author of The Color Purple, at Selman College in Atlanta, Georga. Conscientious objector during the Korean War. Member of the Macedonia Cooperative Community, Clarkesville, Georgia (1951-1954), of the Woodcrest Bruderhof, Rifton, New York (1954-1957), and then of the anarchist/pacifist Glen Gardner Cooperative Community (also known as St. Francis Acres, founded in 1947) in New Jersey. (Click here for Lynd's own account of the the break-up of Macedonia and of the permanent move of all Macedonia members, except himself and his wife Alice, to the Bruderhof.) Represented University Settlement community in 1958 at the FIC conference at Pendle Hill when the Bruderhof withdrew from the Fellowship of Intentional Communities (FIC). Assistant Professor of History, Yale University (1964-1966), but fired for travelling to Hanoi during the Viet-Nam War.  Received national prominence in the 1960's for his participation in the civil rights and anti-Vietnam War movements. Labor lawyer since 1976. Fought steel plant closings in Youngstown, Ohio. Now lives in Niles, Ohio. Lynd wrote:
1963 - "Seeds of Doubt: Some Questions About the [Kennedy] Assassination" (with Jack Minnis)
c1970 - "Rank and File" (with wife Alice)
1978 - "Labor Law for the Rank and Filer, or Building Solidarity While Staying Clear of the Law"
1996 - "We Are All Leaders: The Alternative Unionism of the Early 1930s"
199? - "Solidarity Unionism: Rebuilding the Labor Movement from Below"
199? - "Living Inside Our Hope : A Steadfast Radical's Thoughts on Rebuilding the Movement"
2000 - "Overcoming Racism"

Kincade, Kathleen (Kat) (1931-Alive)
Communitarian and author. Co-founder in 1967 of Twin Oaks Community in Louisa, Virginia. Co-founder in 1973 of East Wind Community in Tecumseh, Missouri. Visited kibbutzin in Israel in Fall 1975. Co-founder in December 1976 of the Fellowship of Egalitarian Communities (FEC). Returned to Twin Oaks from East Wind in 1982. Composes cantatas. Featured in "The Other American Dream", a Washington Post Magazine cover story on Sunday 15 Nov 1988.
Lives at Twin Oaks in a residential unit named for the Nashoba community of Frances Wright.  Kincade wrote:
1968 - "We [Twin Oaks] Are Discovered by the Hippies"
1973 - "A Walden II Experiment: The First Five Years of Twin Oaks Community"
1983 - "Why People Join Communities and Why They Stay", and
1994 - "Is It Utopia Yet? An Insider's View of Twin Oaks Community in its 26th Year".

Stephen F.Gaskin (1935-Alive)
Hippy. Born in Denver, Colorado, in 1935. Founded The Farm, Summertown, Tennessee, in 1971. His wife Ina May Gaskin was called the "mother of authentic midwifery" by Midwifery Today magazine. E-mail Gaskin wrote:
1964 - "40 Miles of Bad Road" (short stories for Master's thesis)
1972 - "The Caravan" (spiritual rap)
1974 - "Hey Beatnik! This Is The Farm Book" (editor)
1979 - "Mind At Play (spiritual and political rap)
1980 - "Amazing Dope Tales and Haight Street Flashbacks" (oral history)
1981 - "Rendered Infamous" (autobiography)

Kirkpatrick Sale (1937-Alive)
"The man who made the word 'Luddite' respectable" (according to the Preservation Institute)
"Anarchist-communitarian" and decentralist (according to himself). Also environmentalist and author. Born in Ithaca, NY, and attended Cornell University. Knew Mildred Loomis and served on the Advisory Council of the School of Living. Contributing editor of The Nation magazine. Friend of Robert Swann and director of E. F. Schumacher Society. Lives in Cold Spring, New York. Sale has written nine books and numerous articles, including:
19?? - "Students for a Democratic Society: Ten Years Toward a Revolution",
19?? - "The Land and People of Ghana",
19?? - "Power Shift: The Rise of the Southern Rim and Its Challenge for the Eastern Establishment",
19?? - "Why the Sea is Salt: Poems of Love and Loss",
19?? - "The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy",
19?? - "In Human Scale",
19?? - "Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision",
19?? - "Turtle Talk: Voices for a Sustainable Future",
1992 - "The Green Revolution: The American Environmental Movement, 1962-1992",
1995 - "Lessons from the Luddites"
1996 - "Rebels Against The Future: The Luddites & their War on the Industrial Revolution: Lessons for the Computer Age",
1996 - "An Overview of Decentralism" (alternative site), and
2001 - "The Fire of His Genius: Robert Fulton and the American Dream".

Timothy (Tim) Miller (1944-Alive)
Professor of Religious Studies, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Active member of the Communal Studies Association (CSA), the International Communal Studies Association (ICSA), and Center for Studies on New Religions (CESNUR). E-mail Miller wrote:
1987 - "Following in His Steps: A Biography of Charles M. Sheldon"
1990 - "American Communes, 1860-1960: A Bibliography"
19?? - "Roots of Communal Revival 1962-1966" (available on-line from The Farm)
1993 - "Stress and Conflict in an International Religious Movement: The Case of the Bruderhof" (available on-line from the Peregrine Foundation)
1995 - "America's Alternative Religions" (editor)
1998 - "The Quest for Utopia in Twentieth Century America: Volume I (1900-1960)"
1999 - "The '60's Communes" (Volume II of Miller's history of 20th century communities in the US)
1999 - "Father Devine: A general overview" (available on-line from CESNUR), and
2001 - "Out to Save the World: Why Communal Studies Matter for the 21st Century" (address delivered to the 7th conference of the International Communal Studies Association (ICSA) at Zegg community in Germany).

Betterton, Charles (1948-Alive)
Manager and visonary. Worked for American Friends Service Committee in Mississippi at age 19. Moved in 1978 to Stelle Community in Stelle, Illinois. Met A. Allen Butcher at an Emissaries-sponsored conference in Chicago about 1982. Borrowed money from the Community Educational Service Council, Inc. (CECSI) -- then administered by John Ewbank at Bryn Gweled Homesteads) -- to move Communities magazine from Twin Oaks Community to Stelle in 1984. Editor and fianacial manager of Communities magazine, 1984-1992. Attended Fellowship of Intentional Communities (old FIC) meeting at Tanguy Homesteads in Pennsylvania in Spring 1996 where he announced an August 1996 meeting at Stelle to incorporate the FIC. One of five incorporators of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (new FIC) at the meeting which he hosted at Stelle in August 1986 (the other four were A. Allen Butcher, Laird Schaub/Sandhill, Dan Christenberry/Questenberry, and Donald E. Pitzer). Became member of Oakwood Farm (an Emissaries of Divine Light community) near Muncie, Indiana, in 1994 but returned to Stelle in 1997. Founded and heads CENTER SPACE, EAGLES, the University for Successful Lving, Universal Empowerment, Inc., etc. E-mail Betterton wrote:
19?? - "A Lifetime in Pursuit of Community"
1999 - "Sharing the Art and Science of Community"

Schaub, Laird (19??-Alive)
Communitarian and consensus trainer/mediator.  Often calls himself Laird "Sandhill."  Helped create Sandhill Farm in Rutledge, Missouri, in 1974, helped Sandhill join the Fellowship of Egalitarian Communities (FEC) in 1980, and led the FEC to create PEACH (a self-insurance fund for major medical expenses) in 1985. One of five incorporators of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC) in August 1986 (the other four were Charles Betterton, A. Allen Butcher, Dan Christenberry/Questenberry, and Donald E. Pitzer). Secretary (head) of the FIC, 1986-2001. Resident of Sandhill Farm. Featured on National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation 26 Mar 1998 and on PBS' Newshour with Jim Leher.  Schaub wrote:
1997 - "Snapshot of a Moving Target: The Communities Movement"
2000 - "The State of the Communities Movement" (introductory article in the FIC's Communities Directory).  For a critique,
see "'Do You All Sleep in the Same Room?' - Communes in the 21st Century" by "Sunfrog."

Christenberry, Dan (c1960-Alive)
Owner-operator of an independent insurance agency in Charlottesville, Virginia. Often calls himself Dan "Questenberry." Met A. Allen Butcher at a regional gathering at Seven Oaks Pathworks Center in Northern Virginia in Fall 1985. Joined School of Living in 1986. One of five incorporators of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC) in August 1986 (the other four were Charles Betterton, A. Allen Butcher, Laird Schaub/Sandhill, and Donald E. Pitzer). Hosted an FIC meeting at Shannon Farm Community in April 1989. Resident of Shannon Farm Community in Afton, Virginia. Christenberry wrote:
1990 - Article in the Communities Directory about the beginning in 1954 of the Homer Morris Loan Fund  -- later called the Community Educational Service Council, Inc. (CECSI), and
1995 - "Who We Are: An exploration of What 'Intentional Community' Means" (which quotes the 1993 eulogy for Griscom Morgan by Alfred F. Andersen tracing how the term "intentional community" was coined in 1948-50).

A. Allen Butcher (c1960-Alive)
Scholar. Born in Amherst, Ohio. Unitarian. Lived 12 years at East Wind and Twin Oaks communities. One of five "incorporators" of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC) in August 1986 (the other four were Charles Betterton, Laird Schaub/Sandhill, Dan Christenberry/Questenberry, and Donald E. Pitzer). Butcher has also been involved with New Life Farm and the School of Living (SOL). He studied under Donald E. Pitzer at the Center for Communal Studies, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, Indiana. Interested in polyamory and economics of Henry George. Founder of Fourth World Services. Has lived in Denver, Colorado, since 1992. E-mail Butcher wrote:
1989 - "A World of Communities: To Build an International Network"
1992 - "Introduction to Intentional Community: The Concept, Value and History of Intentional Cultural Design" (30 pages),
1993 - "Crucibles of Culture" (article introducing special issue of Communities magazine on historic communal societies),
1994 - Letter to Martin Johnson about the Bruderhof communities,
1995 - "Community Tools: Resources on Communitarian Values & History and for Community Design, Management and Education" with "Timeline of Communitarism" (44 pages),
1995 - "Legal Options for Intentional Communities" (with Albert Bates of The Farm and Diana Christian of the FIC's Communities magazine),
1996 (revised 1997 & 1999) - "Community Network Histories Related to the Fellowship [for Intentional Community]: 1940s-1990s",
1999 - "Community Cohesiveness",
1999 - "Polyamory and Communal Economics, and
1999 - "Intentioneering the Parallel Culture: Building Urban Intentional Community...".

Daniel (Dan) Greenberg (c1965-Alive)
Educator. Wrote Ph.D. disertation at University of Minnesota about children in community. Resident of Sirius Ecovillage, Shutesbury, Massachusetts. Founder and Executive Director of Living Roots (Ecovillage Education Consortium). See "A conversation on community". In 1992 his wife Monique Gauthier produced the full-length video "Follow The Dirt Road: An Introduction to Intentional Communities in the 1990's" which includes interviews with Donald E. Pitzer, A. Allen Butcher, and dozens of communitarians. E-mail

Ralf Gering (19??-Alive)
Scholar. Born in Germany. Founded in April 2000 and moderates the INTENTIONALCOMMUNITIES e-mail list. Lived at Crystal Spring Colony, a Hutterite community near Winnipeg, Canada, in 1991. Now lives in Kusterdingen, Germany. E-mail Gering wrote:
2000 - International Directory of Groups of Large Intentional Communities (i.e. groups which have at least one intentional comunity with more than 100 members): Available on-line in three parts:
Part 1 (59 groups representing 1,150 large secular communities with about 178,700 members),
Part 2 (84 groups representing 2,740 large Jewish and Christian communities with about 127,300 members), and
Part 3 (30 groups representing 365 large non-Judeao-Christian spiritual communities with about 15,600 members)